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Spray to protect your crops – Part 3: Different kinds of sprayers

Compiled by J Fuls (Pr Eng)

spray

This post is also available in: Afrikaans

There are many kinds of sprayers available. Some of them are intended for very special applications.

This month we look closely at the different kinds of sprayers, from very small to very large and from general to very specific applications. We thank the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering in South Africa, who made this article available to the readers of ProAgri Zambia.

Manual sprayers

Hand sprayer for pest control in small fields.
Pressure tank sprayer for pest and weed control on small farm lands. A hand pumps like a motorcar pump to create a high pressure in the whole tank. Air pressure drives liquid out of the tank for spraying. The sprayer is carried over one’s shoulder.
Knapsack sprayer for pest and weed control on small farm fields. The hand pump pumps liquid directly out of the tank for spraying. The tank is not put under pressure. The sprayer is carried on the back, hanging on both shoulders.
Bicycle pump type hand sprayer for weed and pest control in larger fields.
sprayer
Wheel driven boom sprayer for pest and weed control on fairly large areas of small farms. The pump is driven from the wheels and pumps liquid directly from the tank to a number of nozzles mounted on a boom.

Powered sprayers

Engine driven wheel barrow boom sprayer for pest and weed control on fairly large areas of small farms. The pump is driven by an engine and pumps liquid directly from the tank to a number of nozzles mounted on a boom. The machine is still pushed over the field by man.
sprayer
Engine driven knapsack sprayer for pest and weed control on small farm fields. An engine driven pump replaces the hand pump of the knapsack sprayer. The sprayer is carried on the back, hanging on both shoulders.
Tractor mounted boom sprayer for pest and weed control on large areas of commercial farming. The pump is driven by the tractor power take-off shaft and pumps liquid directly from the tank to a number of nozzles mounted on a boom. The machine is fully supported by the tractor.

Air assisted sprayers

sprayer
Air assisted boom sprayer for pest and weed control on large fields of commercial farms. Air from a powerful fan blows into a sock. The sock has holes above the nozzles. The air blows down and forces the spray into the leaves below. The pump and the fan are driven by the tractor power take-off.

Specialised sprayers

These sprayers are called ultra-low volume sprayers. They form very, very small droplets, like a mist, and the sprayers are only used to control insects and pests. Very little water is used together with the chemicals, which means that the tank can be very small or that a large area can be sprayed before re-filling.

Orchard sprayer for pest control on trees on large areas of commercial farms. Air from a powerful fan blows over a set of nozzles on both sides. This air carries the spray right into the trees. The pump and the fan are driven by the tractor power take-off.
Hand-held disc atomiser for pest control on small fields. A fast spinning disc breaks the liquid up into a mist. Spray drift in wind is a serious problem. Very little water is needed. Batteries in the handle provide power to spin the disc.
Tractor mounted disc atomiser for pest control on commercial farm lands. Spray drift in wind is a serious problem. Very little water is needed with the chemical. A special hydraulic drive system is used to drive the pump and disc from the tractor power take-off
A fast spinning disc breaks the liquid up into a mist.

Next month we shall take an in-depth look at the knapsack sprayer.

Published with the acknowledgement to the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering for the use of their manuals. Visit www.arc.agric.za for more information.

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